Period: 1961

People’s Movement: 1961 – 1974

Malcolm X

Book - Non-fiction. By Gail Fay. 2012. A comprehensive introduction to the life of Malcolm X (Malik El-Shabazz) appropriate for third grade (age 9) and above.
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America's Social Arsonist: Fred Ross and Grassroots Organizing in the Twentieth Century (Book) | Zinn Education Project: Teaching People's History

Ross, Fred

Profile. By Gabriel Thompson. 2013. Introduction to little-known but influential labor organizer Fred Ross (1910-1992), who trained many activists of note including Dolores Huerta and Cesar Chavez.
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Chain of Fire

Book - Fiction. By Beverley Naidoo, illustrated by Eric Velasquez. 1993. 256 pages. When the South African government forces a village to relocate, young protesters, who do not have the freedom of speech, organize a march against apartheid.
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Journey to Jo’burg: A South African Story

Book - Fiction. By Beverley Naidoo, illustrated by Eric Velasquez. 1988. 96 pages. A brother and sister take their sick sibling to the city of Johannesburg to get their mother at work, and come to understand the struggle for freedom and dignity taking place in South Africa.
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March on Washington | Zinn Education Project

Claiming and Teaching the 1963 March on Washington

By Bill Fletcher Jr.
August 28 marks the anniversary of the historic March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Publicly associated with Dr. King’s famous “I Have a Dream” speech, this march brought more than 250,000 people to the nation’s capital. The day went down in history as a powerful show of force against Jim Crow segregation. Over time this great event has risen to levels of near mythology. The powerful speech by Dr. King, replayed, in part, for us every January on Martin Luther King Day, has eclipsed all else—so much so that too many people believe that the March on Washington was entirely the work of Dr. King. It is also barely remembered that the March on Washington was for freedom and jobs.
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The Revolution of Evelyn Serrano

Book - Fiction. By Sonia Manzano. 2012. 224 pages. A coming-of-age story set in New York's El Barrio in 1969 using actual news accounts of the Young Lords taking control of their destinies.
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Pentagon Papers collage | Zinn Education Project

Camouflaging the Vietnam War: How Textbooks Continue to Keep the Pentagon Papers a Secret

By Bill Bigelow
In the Academy Award-winning documentary Hearts and Minds, Daniel Ellsberg, who secretly copied and then released the Pentagon Papers, offers a catalog of presidential lying about the U.S. role in Vietnam: Truman lied. Eisenhower lied. Kennedy lied. Johnson “lied and lied and lied.” Nixon lied.

Ellsberg concludes: “The American public was lied to month by month by each of these five administrations. As I say, it’s a tribute to the American public that their leaders perceived that they had to be lied to; it’s no tribute to us that it was so easy to fool the public.”

In June of 1971, Ellsberg surrendered to federal authorities at Post Office Square in Boston. Forty-two years later, few of the historical secrets that Ellsberg revealed—especially those that focus on the immediate post-World War II origins of U.S. involvement in Vietnam—appear in the school curriculum.
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