Red Summer

Red Summer was a post-World War I period of epidemic white mob racist riots from the spring of 1919 into the fall of that same year — and beyond. Read and share the Teen Vogue article, The Red Summer of 1919, Explained. (A longer version of the article is here: Remembering Red Summer — Which Textbooks Seem Eager to Forget.) Find more resources and “this day in history” entries about Red Summer below.

1919 by Eve Ewing book cover

1919

Book — Non-fiction. By Eve L. Ewing. 96 pages. 2019. Poetic reflections on the Chicago Race Riots of 1919 — part of 'Red Summer' — in a history told through Ewing's speculative and Afrofuturist lenses.
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The Killing Floor

Film. Directed by Bill Duke. 1985. Digitally restored in 2020. 118 minutes. Set during World War I, two African-American men deal with racism in the workplace and the labor union.
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Robert Hill Elaine Massacre | Zinn Education Project

Sept. 30, 1919: Elaine Massacre

Black farmers were massacred in Elaine, Arkansas for their efforts to fight for better pay and higher cotton prices. A white mob shot at them, and the farmers returned fire in self-defense. Estimates range from 100-800 killed, and 67 survivors were indicted for inciting violence.
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Riot Sweeps Chicago | Zinn Education Project

July 27, 1919: Red Summer in Chicago

Sparked by a white police officer's refusal to make an arrest in the murder of a Black teenager, Chicago's Red Summer violence lasted almost a week. At least 38 people were killed and thousands of Black homes were looted and damaged.
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