The primary cause of the Houston riot was the habitual brutality of the white police officers of Houston in their treatment of colored people. — The Crisis Magazine, November 1917
On Dec. 11, 1917, 13 African American soldiers were hanged just outside of San Antonio for alleged participation in the Houston Riot (or Mutiny) in August. The Houston Riot was started after a case of police brutality, as described by the Paris, Texas NAACP here:
At noon [on August 23, 1917], police dragged an African American woman from her home and arrested her for public drunkenness. A soldier from the camp asked what was going on, and was beaten and arrested as well. When Cpl. Charles Baltimore, an MP, learned of the arrest he went to the police station to investigate. He was beaten, then shot at as he was chased away. Rumors soon reached the camp that Baltimore had been killed, and that a white mob was approaching. Soldiers armed themselves and began their march toward the city.
A riot ensued, leaving 16 white people dead, including five policemen. Four Black soldiers also died.
The army held three courts-martial following the Houston Riot and found 110 African Americans guilty.
Nineteen African American soldiers were executed and 63 received life sentences in federal prison. Two white officers faced court-martial, but they were released. No white civilians were brought to trial.
|The 13 soldiers hanged on December 11 were:
Sgt. William C. Nesbitt
To put this event in historical context, we recommend Freedom Struggles: African Americans and World War I by Adriane D. Lentz-Smith and Lynching in America: Targeting Black Veterans from the Equal Justice Initiative.