Like members of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, Malcolm X advocated for the right of armed self-defense for Black and other oppressed groups who lived in so violently a racist society as the United States.
The video clip below offers an excerpt of “Message to the Grass Roots,” a speech by Malcolm X in Detroit, Michigan on November 10, 1963 at the Northern Negro Grass Roots Leadership Conference.
Two years after giving this speech, he was assassinated in New York City on Feb. 21, 1965.
Malcolm X’s message is read here by Mos Def on November 11, 2006, at the Berkeley Community Theatre in Berkeley, Calif. The excerpt is from Voices of a People’s History of the United States edited by Howard Zinn and Anthony Arnove.