Laws & Citizen Rights

Sarah Keys | Zinn Education Project

Aug. 1, 1952: Sarah Keys Refused to Give Up Her Seat on a Bus

Sarah Keys refused to give up her seat on a state-to-state charter bus, prompting the landmark court case, Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company.
Time Periods: Cold War: 1945 - 1960
Themes: African American, Civil Rights Movements, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Women's History
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Aug. 13, 1955: Lamar Smith Murdered

Lamar Smith, 63-year-old farmer and WWI veteran, was shot dead in Brookhaven, Mississippi, for urging African Americans to vote.
Time Periods: Cold War: 1945 - 1960
Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Racism & Racial Identity
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Aug. 14, 1935: The Social Security Act Passed

The Social Security Act was passed, one of the results of the strength of organized labor and other mass movements of the 1930s.
Time Periods: 20th Century, Prosperity, Depression, & World War II: 1920 - 1944
Themes: Democracy & Citizenship, Disability, Economics, Labor, Laws & Citizen Rights
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Paul Robeson | Zinn Education Project

Aug. 16, 1955: Paul Robeson Lost Court Appeal

Paul Robeson lost his court appeal to have the U.S. State Department grant him a passport.
Time Periods: Cold War: 1945 - 1960
Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Racism & Racial Identity
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Steve Biko | Zinn Education Project

Aug. 18, 1977: Steve Biko Arrested

Anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko was arrested at a police roadblock.
Time Periods: Post-Civil Rights Era: 1975 - 2000
Themes: Laws & Citizen Rights, Racism & Racial Identity, World History/Global Studies
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Clara Luper (photo) | Zinn Education Project

Aug. 19, 1958: Katz Drugstore Sit-Ins

Clara Luper and the NAACP Youth Council began sit-ins to desegregate lunch counters.
Time Periods: Cold War: 1945 - 1960
Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights
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James Baldwin Freedom Day Selma 1964 | Zinn Education Project

Aug. 2, 1924: James Baldwin Born

James Baldwin was born in Harlem, New York.
Time Periods: Prosperity, Depression, & World War II: 1920 - 1944
Themes: African American, Art & Music, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Organizing
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Aug. 22, 1781: Elizabeth Mumbet Freeman Secures Her Freedom

Elizabeth Mumbet Freeman, won her freedom. She had secured an attorney and filed a "freedom suit” under the 1780 state constitution for Massachusetts.
Time Periods: Revolution & Constitution: 1765 - 1799
Themes: Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Slavery and Resistance
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Aug. 22, 1964: Sharecroppers Demand Delivery of Full Suffrage in the U.S.

Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer, and the other members of the MFDP at the Democratic National Convention, questioned the nation about the lack of "one person, one vote" in the United States.
Time Periods: People’s Movement: 1961 - 1974
Themes: African American, Civil Rights Movements, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Organizing
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Suffragists White House | Zinn Education Project

Aug. 26, 1920: 19th Amendment Adopted

The 19th Amendment was formally adopted.
Time Periods: Prosperity, Depression, & World War II: 1920 - 1944
Themes: Civil Rights Movements, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Organizing, Women's History
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Aug. 27, 1963: W. E. B. Du Bois Dies

W. E. B. Du Bois died in Accra, Ghana.
Time Periods: People’s Movement: 1961 - 1974
Themes: African American, Civil Rights Movements, Democracy & Citizenship, Education, Laws & Citizen Rights, Wars & Related Anti-War Movements
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J.C. Farmer | Zinn Education Project

Aug. 3, 1946: J. C. Farmer Killed

J. C. Farmer, a 19-year-old African American WWII veteran, was killed by a mob of 20 white men.
Time Periods: Cold War: 1945 - 1960
Themes: African American, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights
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Aug. 30, 1919: The Knoxville Riot

In Tennessee, a group of whites rioted after forming a mob to lynch Maurice Mays, a Black man in custody on for the alleged (with no evidence) murder of a white woman.
Time Periods: 20th Century, Prosperity, Depression, & World War II: 1920 - 1944
Themes: African American, Laws & Citizen Rights, Racism & Racial Identity
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The Sugar Shack | Zinn Education Project

Aug. 6, 1965: Voting Rights Act

The Voting Rights Act was signed into law.
Time Periods: People’s Movement: 1961 - 1974
Themes: African American, Civil Rights Movements, Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights
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Bill of Rights

Dec. 15, 1791: Bill of Rights Ratified

The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, known as the United States Bill of Rights, were ratified.
Time Periods: Revolution & Constitution: 1765 - 1799
Themes: Democracy & Citizenship, Laws & Citizen Rights, Racism & Racial Identity, Slavery and Resistance, Social Class
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